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  • Report  |   2015

    Facilitating the Participation of Landlocked Developing Countries in Commodity Value Chains

    Author(s): United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

    Landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) face multiple trade and development challenges. In addition to their geographical predicaments and remoteness from international markets, most of these countries are commodity dependent. Primary commodities accounted for more than half of the exports of 27 out of 32 LLDCs in 2011–2013, and resource-based...

  • Report  |   2015

    Trade in ICT Goods and the 2015 Expansion of the WTO Information Technology Agreement

    Author(s): United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

    The WTO Information Technology Agreement (ITA) was extended in July 2015 with the goal of expanding the number of products that will enjoy duty free treatment when imported into economies that are members of the agreement. This note provides a first comparison of trade in ICT goods as defined by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development...

  • Presentation  |   2015

    International Trade and Freight by 2050

    Author(s): Kauppila, Jari

    The importance of freight transport as a trade enabler, engine of growth and a driver of social development is widely recognized, but its growing activity poses a concern in view of adverse effects on the environment and the climate, namely due to the sector’s current resource consumption patterns and related implications for fuel efficiency and...

  • Report  |   2015

    Introduction: Borders, Informality, International Trade and Customs

    Author(s): Cantens, Thomas ; Ireland, Robert ; Raballand, Gael

    This special issue deals with the “informal” cross-border trade in goods. Trading goods is an original human activity that precedes borders (Renfrew 1969). With the rise of nation-stateswith demarcated political boundaries, trade that crosses borders became regulated by government institutions such as Customs, with tariffs, quotas, or outright...

  • Policy Brief  |   2015

    Implementing Trade Logistics Reforms in Complex Multi-Country and Regional Settings: The Case of the Western Balkans

    Author(s): Gabrielyan, Gagik ; Konar-Leacy, Violane

    Trade facilitation connects economies and provides opportunities for business growth. However, the national agencies involved in trade often have different objectives, lack coordination with peer agencies in other countries because of different national priorities, high workloads, and absence of platforms to consult with each other. Such a...

  • Report  |   2015

    Connecting South Asia and Southeast Asia

    Author(s): Asian Development Bank

    This report analyzes how closer regional connectivity and economic integration between South Asia and Southeast Asia can benefit both regions, with a focus on the role played by infrastructure and public policies in facilitating this process. It examines major developments in South Asia–Southeast Asia trade and investment, economic cooperation,...

  • Report  |   2015

    Indicators to Monitor Deeper Regional Trade Integration in Africa

    Author(s): World Bank Group

    Stronger regional integration has been a policy priority in Africa for several decades. Closer trade links with neighboring countries promise to stabilize food markets, enhance profitable exchanges in light manufactures, reduce consumer prices, and help develop regional production networks. However, the implementation of existing integration...

  • Report  |   2015

    The Impacts of Trade Facilitation Measures on International Trade Flows

    Author(s): de Sá Porto, Paulo C. ; Canuto, Otaviano ; Morini, Cristiano

    This paper analyzes the impacts of selected trade facilitation measures on international trade flows. A gravity model is used to estimate four equations: a pooled cross-section model; a fixed-effects model; a random effects model; and a Poisson maximum likelihood estimator. The contribution of the paper is twofold. First, the analysis uses a...

  • Report  |   2015

    Overcoming Barriers to International Investment in Clean Energy

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    The perceived potential of clean energy to support employment in the post-crisis recovery context has led several OECD and emerging economies to design green industrial policies aimed at protecting domestic manufacturers, notably through local-content requirements (LCRs). These typically require solar or wind developers to source a specific share...

  • Report  |   2015

    A New Digital Trade Agenda

    Author(s): Meltzer, Joshua Paul

    The globalization of the Internet and the ability to move data across borders underpins an increasing amount of international trade. What constitutes digital trade is potentially very broad. It can include the use of the Internet to search for products, purchase them, and in the case of digital goods, deliver them online. In an international...

  • Report  |   2015

    Greater Mekong Subregion Statistics on Growth, Connectivity and Sustainable Development

    Author(s): Asian Development Bank

    Timely availability of information, data, and indicators at the country and project levels allows for the measurement of progress – the achievement of policy objectives, as well as impacts and outcomes of target-driven projects. The primary objectives of the GMS Statistical Database are to - consolidate all relevant data in one portal to provide...

  • Report  |   2015

    An Empirical Estimation of Asia's Untapped Regional Integration Potential Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Author(s): Naeher, Dominik

    This paper uses directed bilateral flow data on multiple dimensions of economic integration to construct a composite index of regional integration outcomes covering 19 regions in various parts of the world. As a first step, the multidimensional indicator is used to rank regions according to their current degree of regional integration, which...

  • Report  |   2015

    Towards a Framework for the Governance and Delivery of Infrastructure

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    In response to discussions on the need for further study on how to think about infrastructure governance and modality choice at the 2014 Annual Meeting of Senior PPP Officials in Paris on 17-18 February 2014, this paper sets out a draft framework for the public governance and delivery of infrastructure. The ambition is to harness OECD countries’...

  • Report  |   2015

    Allocating Risks in Public-Private Partnership Contracts

    Author(s): Global Infrastructure Hub

    The objective of this Report is to provide additional guidance to countries, including both members and non-members of the G20, that wish to develop a programme of PPP transactions. The primary focus is on those countries with limited or no prior experience of PPPs, and the desired outcome of the Report is that those countries will have a useful...

  • Report  |   2015

    Better Together

    Author(s): Innovation and Networks Executive Agency

    Better Together showcases ten cross-border projects involving at least two EU countries, either completed or in progress. They have been selected among hundreds of similar TEN-T projects financed by the EU for their outstanding achievements in building a faster, safer and greener European transport network. This publication will take you on a...

  • Report  |   2015

    Cross-Border Power Trading in South Asia: A Techno Economic Rationale

    Author(s): Wijayatunga, Priyantha ; Chattopadhyay, D. ; Fernando, P. N.

    Diversity in primary energy sources in South Asian countries and their electricity demand patterns both  time-of-day as well as across different seasons open up opportunities for greater use of cheaper and cleaner  resources for electricity generation reducing fossil fuel use in the region. Such sharing of resources through  electricity trading...

  • Report  |   2015

    Cross-Border Electricity Cooperation in South Asia

    Author(s): Singh, Anoop ; Jamasb, Tooraj ; Nepal, Rabindra ; Toman, Michael A.

    South Asian countries, facing challenges in efficiently meeting growing electricity demand, can benefit from increased cross-border electricity cooperation and trade by harnessing complementarities in electricity demand patterns, diversity in resource endowments for power generation, and gains from larger market access. The region has witnessed...

  • Report  |   2015

    Russian Federation-- A Sector Assessment: Broadband in Russia

    Author(s): Gelvanovska, Natalija ; Hohlov, Yuri ; Maciule, Vaiva ; Rossotto, Carlo Maria ; Shaposhnik, Sergei

    A first step in infrastructure planning is often to do a sector assessment.  This World Bank paper aims to advise the Government of Russia on the measures needed to develop broadband throughout the country in support of economic growth. It first examines the broadband market in Russia and preconditions for its sustainable development. Next, it...

  • Report  |   2015

    The Regional Balkans Infrastructure Study Update: Enhancing Regional Connectivity, Identifying Impediments and Priority Remedies

    Author(s): El-Hefnawy, Moustafa Baher ; Sekerinska, Liljana ; Epaneshnikova, Evgenia ; Ryskulova, Nargis

    In an effort to further develop the South East Europe transport observatory (SEETO) comprehensive network, integrate it in the European Union’s (EU) Trans-European transport (TEN-T) network and strengthen the underlying transport planning systems, a grant was awarded by the Western Balkans infrastructure framework (WBIF) for the update of the...

  • Report  |   2015

    How Much Could South Asia Benefit from Regional Electricity Cooperation and Trade?

    Author(s): Timilsina, Govinda R. ; Toman, Michael A. ; Karacsonyi, Jorge G. ; de Tena Diego, Luca

    The South Asia region is lagging behind many regions in the world in regional electricity cooperation and trading, despite the huge anticipated benefits. This study uses an electricity planning model that produces optimal expansion of electricity generation capacities and transmission interconnections in the long-term to quantify the benefits of...

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