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  • Report  |   2016

    Trade Facilitation and Development: Driving Trade Competitiveness, Border Agency Effectiveness and Strengthened Governance- Transport and Trade Facilitation Series, No 7

    Author(s): United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

    Trade facilitation reforms improve a country’s trade competitiveness and the effectiveness of border agencies. In addition, they can directly help advance development goals such as strengthening governance and formalizing the informal sector. The present study identifies policies to help reap the full development-related benefits from trade...

  • Report  |   2017

    The Asian Economic Integration Cooperation Agreement: Lessons for Economic and Social Development

    Author(s): Santos-Paulino, Amelia U.

    This paper examines the impact of regional integration on development in the ASEAN economic community. The study presents a measure of bilateral trade balances showing that despite rapid trade expansion, imports have grown faster than exports resulting in a deterioration of the trade balances in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam- the less...

  • Report  |   2015

    Trade in ICT Goods and the 2015 Expansion of the WTO Information Technology Agreement

    Author(s): United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

    The WTO Information Technology Agreement (ITA) was extended in July 2015 with the goal of expanding the number of products that will enjoy duty free treatment when imported into economies that are members of the agreement. This note provides a first comparison of trade in ICT goods as defined by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development...

  • Report  |   2016

    Framework Agreement on Facilitation of Cross-border Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific

    Author(s): United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

    The Framework Agreement on Facilitation of Cross-border Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific, a UN treaty deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations in New York, aims at accelerating the implementation of digital trade facilitation measures for trade and development. Designed as an inclusive instrument accessible to countries...

  • Policy Brief  |   2017

    Trade Facilitation and Better Connectivity for an Inclusive Asia and Pacific (Highlights)

    Author(s): United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

    This publication investigates the evolution of trade costs, and reviews the state of play of trade facilitation and paperless trade in Asia and the Pacific. Trade facilitation increases trade flows, lowers trade cost, and ultimately contributes to sustainable and inclusive growth. This publication, jointly prepared by the Asian Development Bank...

  • Report  |   2012

    Handbook of Best Practices at Border Crossing- A Trade and Transport Facilitation Perspective

    Author(s): United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

    The OSCE-UNECE Handbook of Best Practices at Border Crossings – A Trade and Transport Facilitation Perspective offers a unique opportunity for countries both in and beyond the OSCE/UNECE region to develop border and customs policies that increase security and more efficiently facilitate international trade and transport. Trade Transport United...

  • Policy Brief  |   2017

    Financing Energy Connectivity

    Author(s): United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

    This policy brief aims to explore regional energy connectivity and its role in meeting broader energy goals within the framework of the Sustainable Development Agenda. Challenges, particularly relating to financing gaps will be highlighted through existing sub-regional initiatives. Energy United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and...

  • Policy Brief  |   2017

    MPFD Policy Briefs No. 48, April 2017 "Promoting investment in the Asia-Pacific Information Superhighway (AP-IS)"

    Author(s): United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

    The digital divide in Asia and the Pacific continues to widen over time. It affects ESCAP low-income countries (mostly LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS) which need ICT connectivity the most in their efforts towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In response, ESCAP member countries recently endorsed the AP-IS Master Plan and Regional...

  • Report  |   2016

    Promoting Regional Energy Connectivity in Asia and the Pacific

    Author(s): United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

    At its seventieth session, the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific endorsed the Bangkok Declaration on Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia and the Pacific, which promotes a comprehensive view of regional economic cooperation and integration. Energy connectivity, with its specific focus on transboundary...

  • Policy Brief  |   2017

    Public-Private Partnerships for Cross-Border Infrastructure Development

    Author(s): United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

    Cross-border infrastructure networks are critical for improving regional connectivity, their financing has however been challenging. This paper examines whether Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) may contribute to their development and reviews past experience with this type of financing arrangements in the energy, transport and telecommunication...

  • Report  |   2018

    Review of Configuration of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Corridors

    Author(s): Asian Development Bank

    This review recommends possible extension and/or realignment of economic corridors to enhance their effectiveness and efficiency in advancing economic integration in the Greater Mekong Subregion. The economic corridor approach was adopted by the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in 1998 to help accelerate subregional development. The...

  • Report  |   2014

    Improving Behavior at Borders to Promote Trade Formalization: the Charter for Cross-Border Traders

    Author(s): Brenton, Paul ; Dihel, Nora ; Hoppe, Mombert ; Soprano, Carmine

    Informal trade supports the livelihood of hundreds of thousands of households in Africa, reaches markets and clients that are underserved by formal channels, and contributes to regional food security. Despite numerous benefits, conducting cross-border transactions remains expensive for small traders in Africa. For example, small traders in Malawi...

  • Report  |   2012

    Collaborative Border Management: A New Approach to an Old Problem

    Author(s): McLinden, Gerard

    Border clearance processes are among the most problematic links in the global supply chain and frequently undermine national competitiveness by increasing the cost of exports and reducing reliability of supply. As a result, securing meaningful reform of border management procedures has become an important issue for the development community....

  • Policy Brief  |   2015

    Implementing Trade Logistics Reforms in Complex Multi-Country and Regional Settings: The Case of the Western Balkans

    Author(s): Gabrielyan, Gagik ; Konar-Leacy, Violane

    Trade facilitation connects economies and provides opportunities for business growth. However, the national agencies involved in trade often have different objectives, lack coordination with peer agencies in other countries because of different national priorities, high workloads, and absence of platforms to consult with each other. Such a...

  • Report  |   2011

    A Study of International Transport Corridors in OIC Member Countries

    Author(s): PGlobal Global Advisory and Training Services

    The Study on Transport Corridors in OIC Member Countries is an assessment of the role and importance of transport corridors (TC) in contributing to economic growth and cooperation, trade and regional integration with a view to identify a policy framework among the 57 OIC member countries. It has conducted in order to present and to discuss...

  • Report  |   2011

    The Air Connectivity Index: Measuring Integration in the Global Air Transport Network

    Author(s): Arvis, Jean-François ; Shepherd, Ben

    The authors construct a new measure of connectivity in the global air transport network, covering 211 countries and territories for the year 2007. It is grounded in network analysis methods, and is based on a gravity-like model that is familiar from the international trade and regional science literatures. It is a global measure of connectivity,...

  • Policy Brief  |   2017

    Trade in the Digital Economy – A Primer on Global Data Flows for Policymakers

    Author(s): International Chamber of Commerce

    ICC has developed this primer to assist policymakers in addressing the negative implications for growth from blanket restrictions to data flows. In addition, the paper stresses the importance of creating trusted environments to better enable use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and related data flows. The primer concludes with...

  • Report  |   2017

    Two to Tango: An Evaluation of World Bank Group Support for Fostering Regional Integration

    Author(s): World Bank Group

    Three overlapping forces shape economic and political systems in the contemporary world order: globalization, regionalism and nationalism. The first wave of regionalism in the 1960-1980 was primarily driven by the trade and tariff agenda, followed by the second wave in the 1980-2000 when regionalism was seen as a useful supplement to...

  • Report  |   January 2018

    Financing Infrastructure in Asia: Capturing Impacts and New Sources

    Author(s): Yoshino, Naoyuki ; Helble, Matthias ; Abidhadjaev, Umid

    This book presents several country studies and explains how infrastructure investment can increase output, taxes, trade, and firm productivity. Governments throughout the Asia-Pacific region recognize the catalyzing role of infrastructure investment for sustainable growth. Yet, they are faced with the problem of financing new infrastructure. This...

  • Report  |   2017

    Measuring Digital Trade: Towards A Conceptual Framework

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    The Internet and digitalisation are fundamentally changing the way people, businesses and governments interact, including across borders. The growing importance of what is commonly referred to as ‘digital trade’ and the emergence of new (and disruptive) players has resulted in increased interest from within the statistics community and amongst...


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