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  • Report  |   2018

    Trade Costs, Time, and Supply Chain Reliability

    Author(s): Kumar, Utsav ; Shepherd, Ben ; Dime, Roselle

    South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation countries have to invest in improving connectivity to reduce transport times and increase reliability to major markets. This paper uses measures of international transport time in median and standard deviation based on shipment-level data from the Universal Postal Union, to analyze the effect of time on...

  • Report  |   2016

    Value of Air Cargo: Air Transport and Global Value Chains

    Author(s): Shepherd, Ben ; Shingal, Anirudh ; Raj, Anasuya

    As part of the study commissioned by IATA to quantify the relationship between air cargo connectivity and participation in global trade, two air cargo specific indices – the Air Trade Facilitation Index (ATFI) and eFreight Friendliness Index (EFFI) – were developed to assess effectiveness of smart border regulation, customs services and logistics...

  • Policy Brief  |   2013

    Global Connectivity and Export Performance

    Author(s): Arvis, Jean-Francois ; Shepherd, Ben

    The World Bank has developed a novel method for measuring countries’ connectivity in global networks and has applied it to the global air transport network. ‘Connectivity’ in this context is defined as a country’s relative position in that network in terms of the total ‘push’ and ‘pull’ it exerts on air traffic, taking account of all possible...

  • Report  |   2018

    Trade Impacts of Joining the Commonwealth: Evidence from Rwanda

    Author(s): Abdou, Marwa ; Shepherd, Ben

    The Commonwealth's member countries share unique historical ties, as well as resilient diaspora communities with linguistic and institutional similarities. These links could facilitate co-operation and contribute to increased trade, investment and labour flows. This working paper sets out to distill these linkages and their effects from...

  • Report  |   2012

    Logistics Costs and Competitiveness: Measurement and Trade Policy Applications

    Author(s): Shepherd, Ben

    This paper examines the issue of measuring logistics costs from an applied trade policy research perspective, and identifies/maps the logistics-intensive sectors. It explores into a range of data sources and methodologies in an effort to move forward on the analysis of logistics costs from a trade policy research perspective. Going forward, it...

  • Report  |   2011

    The Air Connectivity Index: Measuring Integration in the Global Air Transport Network

    Author(s): Arvis, Jean-François ; Shepherd, Ben

    The authors construct a new measure of connectivity in the global air transport network, covering 211 countries and territories for the year 2007. It is grounded in network analysis methods, and is based on a gravity-like model that is familiar from the international trade and regional science literatures. It is a global measure of connectivity,...

  • Report  |   2017

    Time, Uncertainty, and Trade Flows

    Author(s): Anson, Jose ; Arvis, Jean-Francois ; Boffa, Mauro ; Helble, Matthias ; Shepherd, Benjamin

    This paper quantifies the impact of international transport time on bilateral trade flows in goods using previously unexploited information drawn from a large dataset on international parcel delivery times. In line with previous work, we find that an extra day spent in international transit reduces bilateral trade by just under one percent at the...

  • Report  |   January 2018

    Sustainable & Safe: A Vision and Guidance for Zero Road Deaths

    Author(s): Welle, Ben ; Sharpin, Anna Bray ; Adriazola, Claudia ; Bhatt, Amit ; Alveano, Saúl ; Obelheiro, Marta ; Imamoglu, Celal Tolga ; Job, Soames ; Shotten, Marc ; Bose, Dipan

    Globally, road transport is on a dangerous path. Many roads, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, are dangerous places for people, whether they are in a car, on a motorcycle, on a bicycle, or—especially—on foot. As economies, populations, and car ownership rates are growing, so, too, are the numbers of deaths and serious injuries on...

  • Report  |   2018

    Connectivity Along Overland Corridors of the Belt and Road Initiative

    Author(s): Kunaka, Charles ; Liu, Xingjian ; Derudder, Ben

    The six land corridors that are the  ‘Belt’ part of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) connect more than sixty countries. As the initiative progresses, policy makers, analysts and researchers are trying to answer a few open questions of which the most common are: How can a country best benefit from the BRI? How should projects be prioritized and...

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