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  • Report  |   2018

    Multidimensional Connectivity: Benefits, Risks, and Policy Implications for Europe and Central Asia

    Author(s): Gould, David ; Kenett, Dror Y. ; Panterov, Georgi

    International connections through trade, foreign direct investment, migration, the Internet, and other channels are critical for the transmission of knowledge and growth and form macroeconomic linkages. But how much knowledge is transmitted to a country is not only the result of the overall level of connectivity, but also to whom a country is...

  • Book  |   September 2018

    Critical Connections: Promoting Economic Growth and Resilience in Europe and Central Asia

    Author(s): Gould, David Michael

    Critical Connections examines how trade, investment, migration, and other linkages among countries drive economic growth in the Europe and Central Asia region. The study breaks new ground by using a multidimensional approach that recognizes how each connectivity channel for growth is likely to be affected by the strength of other channels. This...

  • Report  |   2018

    Funding and Financing Infrastructure: The Joint Use of Public and Private Finance

    Author(s): Fay, Marianne ; Martimort, David ; Straub, Stephane

    The paper addresses the issue of the feasible level of private finance in a contracting model of infrastructure finding and financing. It characterizes the structure of financial contracts, deriving the conditions under which both public and private finance coexist. A key feature is that access to outside finance and the regulatory decision on...

  • Report  |   2018

    Connective Financing: Chinese Infrastructure Projects and the Diffusion of Economic Activity in Developing Countries

    Author(s): Bluhm, Richard ; Dreher, Axel ; Fuchs, Andreas ; Parks, Bradley ; Strange, Austin ; Tierney, Michael

    How do development projects influence the geographic distribution of economic activity within low-income and middle-income countries? Existing research focuses on the effects of Western development projects on inter-personal inequality and inequality across different subnational regions. However, China has recently become a major financier of...

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