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  • Policy Brief  |   2017

    Trade in the Digital Economy – A Primer on Global Data Flows for Policymakers

    Author(s): International Chamber of Commerce

    ICC has developed this primer to assist policymakers in addressing the negative implications for growth from blanket restrictions to data flows. In addition, the paper stresses the importance of creating trusted environments to better enable use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and related data flows. The primer concludes with...

  • Policy Brief  |   2017

    Internet Crossing Borders: Boosting the Internet in Landlocked Developing Countries Executive Summary

    Author(s): Internet Society

    Trade ICT Internet Society Download PDF https://www.internetsociety.org/resources/doc/2017/lldcreport Greater Mekong Subregion Information Highway Landlocked Developing Countries trade obstacles transaction costs Customs systems fiber optic submarine cables INTERNET Information Technology Trade Facilitation single windows e-payments regional...

  • Policy Brief  |   2016

    Monitoring Regional Economic Integration in Asia

    Author(s): Rillo, Aladdin D. ; dela Cruz, Valdimir

    Regional economic integration is a process in which two or more countries agree to eliminate economic barriers, with the end goal of enhancing productivity and achieving greater economic interdependence. Given the diversity of Asia and the capacity constraints of countries in the region to manage integration, building an integrated Asian market...

  • Policy Brief  |   2015

    Global Value Chains along the New Silk Road

    Author(s): Vandenberg, Paul ; Kikkawa, Khan

    Central Asia is opening up rapidly with the completion of new transport corridors. Providing a passageway for goods between east and west, however, cannot be its main goal. It needs to attract investment to diversify its economies from petroleum and other natural resources. Other parts of Asia have developed by linking with global value chains....

  • Policy Brief  |   2011

    Financing Infrastructure for Connectivity: Policy Implications for Asia

    Author(s): Bhattacharyay, Biswa N.

    In view of Asia's huge infrastructure needs, as well as the reduced demand for exports due to the ongoing global financial and economic crisis, infrastructure projects offer a way of increasing regional demand and intraregional trade. This policy brief proposes various ways to tap Asia's huge financial resources to fund essential...

  • Policy Brief  |   2010

    MPDD Working Paper on Economic Cooperation and Connectivity in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Author(s): United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

    The region needs to invest in an efficient system of regional infrastructure for a seamless Asia to emerge. This will provide the foundation for Asian common markets and facilitate the creation of an eventual pan-Asian community. None of this will be easy, but it will have to be done by building institutions, harmonizing policies and regulations...

  • Policy Brief  |   2017

    MPFD Policy Briefs No. 48, April 2017 "Promoting investment in the Asia-Pacific Information Superhighway (AP-IS)"

    Author(s): United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

    The digital divide in Asia and the Pacific continues to widen over time. It affects ESCAP low-income countries (mostly LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS) which need ICT connectivity the most in their efforts towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In response, ESCAP member countries recently endorsed the AP-IS Master Plan and Regional...

  • Policy Brief  |   2017

    Trade Facilitation and Better Connectivity for an Inclusive Asia and Pacific (Highlights)

    Author(s): United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

    This publication investigates the evolution of trade costs, and reviews the state of play of trade facilitation and paperless trade in Asia and the Pacific. Trade facilitation increases trade flows, lowers trade cost, and ultimately contributes to sustainable and inclusive growth. This publication, jointly prepared by the Asian Development Bank...

  • Policy Brief  |   2011

    Identifying Benefits and Allocating Costs for European Cross-Border Infrastructure Projects

    Author(s): Glachant, Jean-Michel ; Khalfallah, Haikel

    Cross-border investment projects having a European interest are currently undertaken country by country with insufficient cooperation between all actors impacted by such a project. The asymmetry of cost allocation and benefit distribution of cross-border infrastructure plus the presence of economic externalities have lead to a suboptimal...

  • Policy Brief  |   2017

    Enhancing Regional Financial Cooperation in Asia and the Pacific

    Author(s): United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

    According to the agenda for regional economic cooperation and integration set in the Bangkok Declaration on Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia and the Pacific of December 2013, regional financial cooperation in Asia and the Pacific focuses on three issues: (a) to equip countries with tools to cope with  financial volatility and...

  • Policy Brief  |   2010

    MPDD Working Paper on Economic Cooperation and Connectivity in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Author(s): United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

    The region needs to invest in an efficient system of regional infrastructure for a seamless Asia to emerge. This will provide the foundation for Asian common markets and facilitate the creation of an eventual pan-Asian community. None of this will be easy, but it will have to be done by building institutions, harmonizing policies and regulations...

  • Policy Brief  |   2017

    Public-Private Partnerships for Cross-Border Infrastructure Development

    Author(s): United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

    Cross-border infrastructure networks are critical for improving regional connectivity, their financing has however been challenging. This paper examines whether Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) may contribute to their development and reviews past experience with this type of financing arrangements in the energy, transport and telecommunication...

  • Policy Brief  |   2017

    Financing Energy Connectivity

    Author(s): United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

    This policy brief aims to explore regional energy connectivity and its role in meeting broader energy goals within the framework of the Sustainable Development Agenda. Challenges, particularly relating to financing gaps will be highlighted through existing sub-regional initiatives. Energy United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and...

  • Policy Brief  |   2009

    Ashta Hydropower: Turning a Doubtful Concept into a Technological Trailblazer

    Author(s): Sobek, Martin

    International Finance Corporation (IFC) played a key role in helping the Republic of Albania structure and implements it first large public-private partnership (PPP) transaction in the energy sector, which brought a strong and reliable international investor into the country. Verbund, Austria's largest electricity company won a 35-year...

  • Policy Brief  |   2015

    SAR Connect: The Security and Trade Facilitation Nexus: Options for South Asian Countries

    Author(s): Kerswell, Clayton Bryant ; Kunaka, Charles

    Depending on the nature of the threat and the type of transaction and transport, the ability to profile risk and the type of potential risk-mitigation intervention will be different. If the predominant risk is economic (undervaluation, for instance), a certain set of transactional data can help profile and identify high-risk targets. In such...

  • Policy Brief  |   2016

    International Financial Integration of East Asia and Pacific

    Author(s): Didier Brandao, Tatiana ; Llovet Montanes, Ruth ; Schmukler, Sergio L.

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of how economies in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region have been integrating financially with the rest of the world since the 1990s, using bilateral data on portfolio investments, syndicated bank loans, mergers and acquisitions (M&As), and greenfield investments. Four main messages emerge from...

  • Policy Brief  |   2017

    Low-Cost Technology to Improve Aviation Safety and Efficiency: Investment Program Brings Modernized Aviation Information Technology to Pacific Islands

    Author(s): De Serio, Christopher J. ; Giovannitti, Aldo

    The World Bank’s Pacific Aviation Investment Program (PAIP) is bringing state-of-the-art air traffic management and satellite-based ground communications to airports and small aircraft operators in seven Pacific island countries and territories. These advances, coming online in 2017, will vastly improve the safety and efficiency of South Pacific...

  • Policy Brief  |   2013

    Air Transport in the OECS: Flying Solo

    Author(s): Bofinger, Heinrich C. ; Placci, Florencia Millan

    Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) countries faces two critical barriers for developing their infrastructure and connectivity: their conditions of island states and their geographic location in the Caribbean. Exchanges of goods and services with the rest of the world are limited to air and maritime transport modes, logistics costs...

  • Policy Brief  |   2013

    Global Connectivity and Export Performance

    Author(s): Arvis, Jean-Francois ; Shepherd, Ben

    The World Bank has developed a novel method for measuring countries’ connectivity in global networks and has applied it to the global air transport network. ‘Connectivity’ in this context is defined as a country’s relative position in that network in terms of the total ‘push’ and ‘pull’ it exerts on air traffic, taking account of all possible...

  • Policy Brief  |   2016

    Innovation by Design: Conducting a Border-Crossing Time-Release Study in Belarus

    Author(s): Tetyora, Victoria ; Shemshenya, Irina ; Abrashkevich, Aliaksandr

    In 2015, the World Bank and International Finance Corporation (IFC) conducted a border-crossing time-release study (TRS) at three points on the Belarus border. The joint team customized a standard survey methodology to gather a wider range of data as well as to overcome time and other resource constraints. This smart lesson describes the team’s...

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