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  • Report  |   2017

    Influencing Air Connectivity Outcomes

    Author(s): Burghouwt, Guillaume

    The aviation network plays an important role in today’s globalised society. There is a growing understanding among governments worldwide that air connectivity is an asset improving the global competitiveness of cities, regions and countries. Connectivity growth decreases travel costs for consumers and businesses and facilitates global contacts...

  • Report  |   2018

    Assessing the Effectiveness of Environmental Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements- An Empirical Analysis

    Author(s): Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada

    This report aims to test whether the inclusion of environmental provisions in Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) has contributed to the improvement of environmental quality among the Parties to these agreements through empirical modelling and analysis. Three indicators are considered as a proxy for environmental quality: concentrations of suspended...

  • Report  |   2017

    Climate Change and Trade Policy Interaction- Implications of Regionalism

    Author(s): van Asselt, Harro

    This report investigates the implications of regionalism for the interaction between trade and climate policy. It examines the implications of regional climate governance for international trade and conversely the implications of regional trade governance for climate change action. Regional approaches to climate change governance are discussed...

  • Report  |   2017

    International Trade Consequences of Climate Change

    Author(s): Dellink, Rob ; Lanzi, Elisa ; Chateau, Jean ; Hyunjeong, Hwang

    This report provides an analysis of how climate change damages may affect international trade in the coming decades and how international trade can help limit the costs of climate change. It analyses the impacts of climate change on trade considering both direct effects on infrastructure and transport routes and the indirect economic impacts...

  • Report  |   2013

    The Case of Ireland-Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) – Regions and Innovation: Collaborating Across Borders

    Author(s): Nauwelaers, Claire ; Maguire, Karen ; Marsan, Giulia Ajmone

    The island of Ireland, which includes both Ireland and Northern Ireland (United Kingdom), is home to 6.4 million people and has a combined economic output of USD 205 billion. Several cross-border institutions were created in response to the 1998 Belfast/Good Friday Agreement to recreate functional economic linkages across the border....

  • Report  |   2013

    The Case of Helsinki-Tallinn (Finland-Estonia) – Regions and Innovation: Collaborating Across Borders

    Author(s): Nauwelaers, Claire ; Maguire, Karen ; Marsan, Giulia Ajmone

    Estonia and Finland have centuries of collaboration, mainly between the capital areas of Tallinn and Helsinki that currently account for 2 million inhabitants and USD 76 billion in economic output. The entry of Estonia into the European Union and, since the mid-2000s, a two-hour ferry trip, have both facilitated flows of people and merchandise...

  • Report  |   2013

    The Case of Hedmark-Dalarna (Norway-Sweden) – Regions and Innovation: Collaborating Across Borders

    Author(s): Nauwelaers, Claire ; Maguire, Karen ; Marsan, Giulia Ajmone

    Hedmark County (Norway) and Dalarna County (Sweden) are both rural, with the border being remote from regional centres. The total population of less than half a million inhabitants spans across almost 58 800 km², with an economic output of USD 22 billion. Efforts to support collaboration at the border focus on the sector of tourism that both...

  • Report  |   2013

    The Case of the Bothnian Arc (Finland-Sweden) – Regions and Innovation: Collaborating Across Borders

    Author(s): Nauwelaers, Claire ; Maguire, Karen ; Marsan, Giulia Ajmone

    The Bothnian Arc is a cross-border area on the border of Finland and Sweden that covers the most populated areas along the upper Bothnian Bay, spanning 800 kilometres. It has a population of around 710 000, across 55 000 km² with an economic output of USD 31 billion. The Bothnian Arc collaboration was initiated by local authorities, with strong...

  • Report  |   2018

    Digital Trade and Market Openness

    Author(s): González, Javier López ; Ferencz, Janos

    This paper aims to provide policy makers with a broad overview of the issues that the digital transformation raises for trade with a view to informing how these might be reflected in trade policy design. It discusses how digitalisation has changed international trade and provides estimates of the impact of increased digital connectivity on trade...

  • Report  |   2017

    International Technology Transfer Measures in an Interconnected World: Lessons and Policy Implications

    Author(s): Kowalski, Przemyslaw ; Rabaioli, Daniel ; Vallejo, Sebastian

    The aim of this paper is to inform the ongoing debate on the policies being used to encourage international technology transfer (ITT) and, of these, which have the potential to distort trade or investment and which may effectively promote ITT. The paper develops a first-cut approach to cataloguing ITT-related measures across countries. Following...

  • Report  |   2018

    International Trade and the Transition to a More Resource Efficient and Circular Economy: A Concept Paper

    Author(s): Yamaguchi, Shunta

    The transition towards a more resource efficient and circular economy has broad linkages with international trade through the emergence of global value chains as well as trade in second-hand goods, end-of-life products, secondary materials and waste. Despite of the potential linkages between trade and the circular economy, the existing research...

  • Report  |   2017

    The Future of Global Value Chains- Business As Usual or “A New Normal”?

    Author(s): De Backer, Koen ; Flaig, Dorothee

    The rapid growth of global value chains (GVCs) has been an important driver of globalisation during the past decades. But the international fragmentation of production appears to have lost momentum and GVCs seem to have stalled in recent years. The world economy is facing a number of structural shifts that may dramatically change the outlook of...

  • Report  |   2018

    Building a Stronger and More Integrated Europe

    Author(s): Sánchez, Aida Caldera

    Europe’s economy is finally growing robustly. These positive developments provide an opportunity to renew efforts to meet the long-term challenges facing the European Union (EU). The EU’s record on reducing regional income disparities is mixed and this explains some of citizens’ discontent with the European project. Reforming cohesion policy by...

  • Report  |   2017

    Deepening Regional Integration within the Southern African Development Community

    Author(s): Fall, Falilou ; Gasealahwe, Boingotlo

    Deepening regional integration within the Southern African Development Community (SADC) will raise potential growth for all member countries. Integrated economies will increase market size, trade opportunities and improve resource allocation across member countries. Key pillars of functioning regional integration are the free circulation of goods...

  • Book  |   August 2018

    Enhancing Connectivity through Transport Infrastructure: The Role of Official Development Finance and Private Investment

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    Cross-border or long-distance roads and railways as well as international ports and airports are needed to move products and people around in a globalised world. The OECD recently published a report, "Enhancing Connectivity Transport Infrastructure: The Role of Official Development Finance and Private Investment", which takes stock of...

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