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  • Report  |   2017

    Measuring Digital Trade: Towards A Conceptual Framework

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    The Internet and digitalisation are fundamentally changing the way people, businesses and governments interact, including across borders. The growing importance of what is commonly referred to as ‘digital trade’ and the emergence of new (and disruptive) players has resulted in increased interest from within the statistics community and amongst...

  • Report  |   2017

    Digital Trade: Developing a Framework for Analysis

    Author(s): González, Javier López ; Jouanjean, Marie-Agnes

    This paper explores the definition, measurement, and policy implications of digital trade, proposing a tentative typology of digital trade that can be used to unpack transactions and analyse the issues. Digitalisation is changing what and how we trade: from digital delivery to greater physical trade enabled by digital connectivity. Online...

  • Report  |   2017

    Measuring and Analyzing the Impact of GVCs on Economic Development

    Author(s): Institute of Developing Economies ; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ; Research Center of Global Value Chains ; World Bank Group ; World Trade Organization

    This flagship publication discusses how to better understand the ongoing development and evolution of global value chains (GVC) and their implications for economic development. This report is the result of intensive and detailed work in assembling and analyzing data on the structure of economies and their link to growth and trade. It reflects on...

  • Report  |   2013

    Airport Capacity Expansion Strategies in the Era of Airline Multi-hub Networks

    Author(s): Burghouwt, Guillaume

    Many major airports are hubs for network carriers at the same time as serving a large local market. The complementarity between these functions is often seen as a prerequisite for viable hub operations, suggesting that spreading the hub network over multiple airports can be very costly and damages the corner stone of the hub operation: the...

  • Report  |   2013

    Road Connectivity and the Border Effect

    Author(s): Braconier, Henrik ; Pisu, Mauro

    Several studies have reported a large negative effect of national borders on the volume of trade. We provide new estimates of the border effect for continental Europe using road rather than great circle – or “as-crows-fly” – distance. Road distances for 48 180 European city pairs have been extracted from Bing Maps Routing Services. As our dataset...

  • Report  |   2017

    Aid for Trade at a Glance 2017: Promoting Trade, Inclusiveness and Connectivity for Sustainable Development

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ; World Trade Organization

    This edition of Aid for Trade at a Glance focuses on trade connectivity, which is critical for economic growth, inclusiveness and sustainable development. Physical connectivity enables the movement of goods and services to local, regional and global markets. It is closely intertwined with digital connectivity which is vital in today’s trade...

  • Report  |   2017

    OECD Digital Economy Outlook 2017

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    The biennial OECD Digital Economy Outlook examines and documents evolutions and emerging opportunities and challenges in the digital economy. It highlights how OECD countries and partner economies are taking advantage of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the Internet to meet their public policy objectives. Through comparative...

  • Report  |   2017

    Investing in Climate, Investing in Growth

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    This report provides an assessment of how governments can generate inclusive economic growth in the short term, while making progress towards climate goals to secure sustainable long-term growth. It describes the development pathways required to meet the Paris Agreement objectives and underlines the value of well-aligned policy packages in...

  • Report  |   2017

    Key Issues for Digital Transformation in the G20

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    This report provides an assessment of G20 economies’ performance with respect to digitalisation (Part I) and examines some of the most pressing policy challenges in areas spanning from access to digital infrastructures to digital security to legal frameworks (Part II). Part III includes a set of 11 core policy recommendations that could underpin...

  • Report  |   2017

    OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2017 — The Digital Transformation

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    With some 200 indicators, the 2017 edition of the OECD Science, Technology and Industry (STI) Scoreboard shows how the digital transformation affects science, innovation, the economy, and the way people work and live. It aims to help governments design more effective science, innovation and industry policies in the fast-changing digital era. The...

  • Report  |   2013

    G20/OECD High-level Principles of Long-term Investment Financing by Institutional Investors

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    This document contains the final version of the G20/OECD High Level Principles on Long-Term Investment Financing by Institutional Investors which were endorsed by G20 Leaders at their Summit on 6 September 2013 in St. Petersburg, Russia. The Principles were developed by the OECD Task Force on Institutional Investors and Long-Term Financing. The...

  • Report  |   2017

    Breaking Silos: Actions to Develop Infrastructure as an Asset Class and Address the Information Gap

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    Policy and industry initiatives have been launched to build a better understanding of infrastructure at the macro and micro level. Taken together, all of these data sources and methods used in these initiatives may be applied to help close the data gap in infrastructure, charting a course forward that better describes investment expectations for...

  • Report  |   2013

    Cross-Border Trade in Electricity and the Development of Renewables-Based Electric Power Lessons from Europe

    Author(s): Bahar, Heymi ; Sauvage, Jehan

    The uptake of renewable energy (RE) has been identified by a number of governments as a primary means for mitigating CO2 emissions from the electricity sector, and for making the transition to a low-carbon economy. The electric power output of some RE technologies, however, including those based on intermittent wind and solar energy, can vary...

  • Report  |   2017

    Influencing Air Connectivity Outcomes

    Author(s): Burghouwt, Guillaume

    The aviation network plays an important role in today’s globalised society. There is a growing understanding among governments worldwide that air connectivity is an asset improving the global competitiveness of cities, regions and countries. Connectivity growth decreases travel costs for consumers and businesses and facilitates global contacts...

  • Report  |   2017

    Climate Change and Trade Policy Interaction- Implications of Regionalism

    Author(s): van Asselt, Harro

    This report investigates the implications of regionalism for the interaction between trade and climate policy. It examines the implications of regional climate governance for international trade and conversely the implications of regional trade governance for climate change action. Regional approaches to climate change governance are discussed...

  • Report  |   2017

    International Trade Consequences of Climate Change

    Author(s): Dellink, Rob ; Lanzi, Elisa ; Chateau, Jean ; Hyunjeong, Hwang

    This report provides an analysis of how climate change damages may affect international trade in the coming decades and how international trade can help limit the costs of climate change. It analyses the impacts of climate change on trade considering both direct effects on infrastructure and transport routes and the indirect economic impacts...

  • Report  |   2013

    The Case of Ireland-Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) – Regions and Innovation: Collaborating Across Borders

    Author(s): Nauwelaers, Claire ; Maguire, Karen ; Marsan, Giulia Ajmone

    The island of Ireland, which includes both Ireland and Northern Ireland (United Kingdom), is home to 6.4 million people and has a combined economic output of USD 205 billion. Several cross-border institutions were created in response to the 1998 Belfast/Good Friday Agreement to recreate functional economic linkages across the border....

  • Report  |   2013

    The Case of Helsinki-Tallinn (Finland-Estonia) – Regions and Innovation: Collaborating Across Borders

    Author(s): Nauwelaers, Claire ; Maguire, Karen ; Marsan, Giulia Ajmone

    Estonia and Finland have centuries of collaboration, mainly between the capital areas of Tallinn and Helsinki that currently account for 2 million inhabitants and USD 76 billion in economic output. The entry of Estonia into the European Union and, since the mid-2000s, a two-hour ferry trip, have both facilitated flows of people and merchandise...

  • Report  |   2013

    The Case of Hedmark-Dalarna (Norway-Sweden) – Regions and Innovation: Collaborating Across Borders

    Author(s): Nauwelaers, Claire ; Maguire, Karen ; Marsan, Giulia Ajmone

    Hedmark County (Norway) and Dalarna County (Sweden) are both rural, with the border being remote from regional centres. The total population of less than half a million inhabitants spans across almost 58 800 km², with an economic output of USD 22 billion. Efforts to support collaboration at the border focus on the sector of tourism that both...

  • Report  |   2013

    The Case of the Bothnian Arc (Finland-Sweden) – Regions and Innovation: Collaborating Across Borders

    Author(s): Nauwelaers, Claire ; Maguire, Karen ; Marsan, Giulia Ajmone

    The Bothnian Arc is a cross-border area on the border of Finland and Sweden that covers the most populated areas along the upper Bothnian Bay, spanning 800 kilometres. It has a population of around 710 000, across 55 000 km² with an economic output of USD 31 billion. The Bothnian Arc collaboration was initiated by local authorities, with strong...

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