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  • Report  |   January 2018

    Compendium of Best Practices in Road Asset Management

    Author(s): Asian Development Bank

    Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program member countries share best practices in road asset management, which aims to optimize economic benefits by minimizing maintenance and road user costs. This compendium presents the best practices for the introduction and development of road asset management based on a desk review of the...

  • Report  |   2018

    Consumer Protection Enforcement in A Global Digital Marketplace

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    This report examines information on consumer protection enforcement authorities of OECD member and non-member countries, especially on the ability of these authorities to co-operate across borders. It is based on questionnaire responses from 31 countries, supplemented by additional research. It has been prepared to support a review of the 2003...

  • Report  |   2018

    Aviation and the Role of CAREC: A Scoping Study

    Author(s): Asian Development Bank

    This study examines the potential role of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program in improving aviation in the region. The study provides an analysis of the CAREC region’s current state of aviation, and is structured around three principal components of aviation development: policy and regulation, infrastructure and...

  • Report  |   June 2018

    Closing the Financing Gap in Asian Infrastructure

    Author(s): Ra, Sungsup ; Li, Zhigang

    ADB in 2017 estimated a financing gap in economic infrastructure of $459 billion per year for Asia. The gap almost doubles to $907 billion with the expected need for funding of social infrastructure. Infrastructure investment in Asia, both in economic and social infrastructure, faces a massive financing gap despite the region’s high savings. The...

  • Report  |   2018

    Embracing the E-Commerce Revolution in Asia and the Pacific

    Author(s): Asian Development Bank

    E-commerce revolution in Asia and Pacific presents vast economic potential. Asia is the fastest-growing region in the global e-commerce marketplace, with the largest share of the world’s business-to-consumer e-commerce market. This report introduces a new analytical framework to assess the level and quality of e-commerce development. The...

  • Report  |   2018

    Assessing the Effectiveness of Environmental Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements- An Empirical Analysis

    Author(s): Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada

    This report aims to test whether the inclusion of environmental provisions in Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) has contributed to the improvement of environmental quality among the Parties to these agreements through empirical modelling and analysis. Three indicators are considered as a proxy for environmental quality: concentrations of suspended...

  • Report  |   2018

    Digital Trade and Market Openness

    Author(s): González, Javier López ; Ferencz, Janos

    This paper aims to provide policy makers with a broad overview of the issues that the digital transformation raises for trade with a view to informing how these might be reflected in trade policy design. It discusses how digitalisation has changed international trade and provides estimates of the impact of increased digital connectivity on trade...

  • Report  |   2018

    International Trade and the Transition to a More Resource Efficient and Circular Economy: A Concept Paper

    Author(s): Yamaguchi, Shunta

    The transition towards a more resource efficient and circular economy has broad linkages with international trade through the emergence of global value chains as well as trade in second-hand goods, end-of-life products, secondary materials and waste. Despite of the potential linkages between trade and the circular economy, the existing research...

  • Report  |   2018

    Building a Stronger and More Integrated Europe

    Author(s): Sánchez, Aida Caldera

    Europe’s economy is finally growing robustly. These positive developments provide an opportunity to renew efforts to meet the long-term challenges facing the European Union (EU). The EU’s record on reducing regional income disparities is mixed and this explains some of citizens’ discontent with the European project. Reforming cohesion policy by...

  • Report  |   2018

    Does Regional Integration Matter for Inclusive Growth? Evidence from the Multidimensional Regional Integration Index

    Author(s): Claveria, Racquel ; Park, Cyn-Young

    This study constructs a multidimensional regional integration index series that embodies six key facets of regional integration: trade and investment, money and finance, regional value chains, infrastructure and connectivity, movement of people, and institutional and social integration. The index confirms that regional integration is most...

  • Report  |   2018

    Asian Economic Integration Report 2018

    Author(s): Asian Development Bank

    This publication documents Asia’s progress in regional cooperation and integration. It covers the 48 regional members of the Asian Development Bank and analyzes regional as well as global economic linkages. The 2018 report’s special chapter “Toward Optimal Provision of Regional Public Goods in Asia and the Pacific” examines how collective action...

  • Policy Brief  |   2018

    Building Complementarity and Resilience in ASEAN amid Global Trade Uncertainty

    Author(s): Villafuerte, James P. ; Khan, Fahad ; Tayag, Mara Claire ; Ng, Thiam Hee ; Jeong, Kwang Jo ; Zara, Dulce

    This brief explores how greater regional cooperation and integration within the ASEAN Economic Community can guard against the effects of global trade uncertainty. Growing bilateral trade tensions between the United States (US) and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) are a concern for members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN...

  • Report  |   2018

    Trade Costs, Time, and Supply Chain Reliability

    Author(s): Kumar, Utsav ; Shepherd, Ben ; Dime, Roselle

    South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation countries have to invest in improving connectivity to reduce transport times and increase reliability to major markets. This paper uses measures of international transport time in median and standard deviation based on shipment-level data from the Universal Postal Union, to analyze the effect of time on...

  • Report  |   2018

    Constructing the Asia-Pacific Regional Cooperation and Integration Index: A Panel Approach

    Author(s): Park, Cyn-Young ; Claveria, Racquel

    Trade and investment and movement of people are the main drivers of regional integration in Asia and the Pacific from 2006 to 2016. Asia comes second to the European Union in progress on regional integration. This paper employs a panel approach in constructing the Asia–Pacific Regional Cooperation and Integration Index (ARCII) to strengthen the...

  • Report  |   2018

    Updating and Enhancement of the BIMSTEC Transport Infrastructure and Logistics Study

    Author(s): Asian Development Bank

    BIMSTEC aims to create an environment for rapid economic development through identification and implementation of specific cooperation projects in infrastructure and transportation. The core functions of the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)—to promote free trade and increase cross-border...

  • Report  |   January 2018

    Financing Infrastructure in Asia: Capturing Impacts and New Sources

    Author(s): Yoshino, Naoyuki ; Helble, Matthias ; Abidhadjaev, Umid

    This book presents several country studies and explains how infrastructure investment can increase output, taxes, trade, and firm productivity. Governments throughout the Asia-Pacific region recognize the catalyzing role of infrastructure investment for sustainable growth. Yet, they are faced with the problem of financing new infrastructure. This...

  • Book  |   August 2018

    Enhancing Connectivity through Transport Infrastructure: The Role of Official Development Finance and Private Investment

    Author(s): Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    Cross-border or long-distance roads and railways as well as international ports and airports are needed to move products and people around in a globalised world. The OECD recently published a report, "Enhancing Connectivity Transport Infrastructure: The Role of Official Development Finance and Private Investment", which takes stock of...

  • Report  |   2018

    Review of Configuration of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Corridors

    Author(s): Asian Development Bank

    This review recommends possible extension and/or realignment of economic corridors to enhance their effectiveness and efficiency in advancing economic integration in the Greater Mekong Subregion. The economic corridor approach was adopted by the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in 1998 to help accelerate subregional development. The...

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